India is a developing country, the majority of its population belong to the rural area, and their primary job is agriculture. Well, Agriculture has been the backbone of India's economy for centuries, providing livelihoods to a significant portion of the population and playing a crucial role in food security. This blog is all about major problems faced by farmers and the path to sustainable agriculture.
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Once a wise man said, “If the farmer is rich, then so is the nation.” India is a primary sector country, where farming is just not work but it’s a devotion in our Country. In India, agricultural activities began by 9000 BCE in the Northwest Indian regions. Considering the Indian subcontinent, India is the largest producer of grain. These days farmers are also learning various techniques being developed for agriculture.
For the majority of people in India, agriculture is regarded as their main source of income, which should never be undervalued. Somewhere or the other solution for farmers problems is the need of the hour.
In our nation, agriculture has existed for thousands of years, and when new technologies and tools have emerged, they have supplanted conventional farming practices.
In India, a large number of farmers still use traditional farming methods because they lack the resources to use modern techniques.
Considering Agriculture, There are many challenges in agriculture. It is the only sector that contributes to itself and other country sectors as well. India is the second-largest producer of wheat, rice, cotton, fruit, vegetables, and tea.
It is also a global mass-level powerhouse of agricultural production. India is the world’s largest producer of spices, milk, wheat, rice & cotton.
In India, Farmers exist in every state, but still, there are certain states such as Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh & the North-eastern state of Assam where they are in a high number.
Agricultural Issues of Farmers
As we all know that India is a developing country, the majority of its population belong to the rural area, and their primary job is agriculture. With recent changes in our environment like COVID-19, locust attacks, etc. The scenario in the agriculture industry is changing rapidly.
These events increase the challenges in the agriculture field .
Now, coming towards to the major problems of farmers were facing earlier and now are as follows:-
Unavailability of Good quality seeds
Seeds are the ones which are sown by the farmers in the mother earth. Seeds are also the basic input or raw material for farmers to grow crops. But there is a shortage of proper quality seeds in the market. If also good quality seeds are available, they are so expensive that the poor and marginal farmers are not able to afford them. They will have to take loans for the seeds buying. Due to this, farmers are bound to use traditional seeds which are less productive. Most of the good seed manufacturers in India are also very few in number.
Lack of Modern Agri-Equipments
These days a lot of farmers are still struggling and lacking proper tools, and agri-equipments in India. In 2023, most of the Indian farmers will use the old traditional tools for farming which are as follows such as ploughs , sickles, etc.
Also such tools may also lead to the wastage of energy and manpower. They can use pumps and modern garden sprayers which are very handy in nature.
Less use and lack of awareness of the machine are seen in irrigation, harvesting, and transportation. Also, there are two reasons why farmers are not using modern equipment.
Firstly, they are not aware, and secondly, they can’t afford such costly equipment.
The Third problem which arises, even if a farmer can afford the equipment or the tool but there is the unavailability of electricity 24*7 in the village areas and the farming areas.
There is also an urgent need to modernise the agricultural operations and agricultural infrastructure of the country. In India many state governments have started various schemes in which farmers can take modern equipment at a lower price. In this way they don’t have to pay
the full sum of the amount and they will also get the machines.
Well in the last few years we significantly seen an increase in the sales figure of tractors, power tillers, etc. There was a huge increase in the sales of tractors , power tillers. But Still India have high potential to achieve a lot in agricultural productivity until we get the complete solutions in agriculture.
Many state governments have started a scheme in which farmers can take modern equipment for rent at a low price. But India cannot achieve its full agricultural productivity until the whole agriculture system is mechanised. But in our country the scenario is not the same. Considering Madhya Pradesh & Chhattisgarh etc. Rivers don’t carry water throughout the year. Due to this, farmers have to depend on the monsoon water for irrigation which is very uncertain and unpredictable at the same time.
Small and Fragmented Holdings of Land are one of the major reasons why Indian farmers are not competent. In India most of the poor farmers have a very small amount of land and most of them don’t even have a good and fertile land for farming. According to data available , The average size of the land holding is also decreasing every year. This also means the situation is getting even worse. The problem also becomes more serious in densely populated states of India with less farming land. It's likewise a reality that just 1.6% of the land possessions has a place with the class of huge property that too which are claimed by the rich farmers. A farmer finds it challenging to irrigate and harvest in dispersed grounds since it takes a long time to transfer resources from one field to another.
When a person dies, the land belonging to him is distributed among his sons, but this distribution does not insure the entailment of a consolidated land, and due to this problem , most of the farmers in India have fragmented Lands. Dealing with local traders and middlemen.
We often see in the news that farmers throw their crops on roads just because no one purchased them. This is also a major problem and due to the absence of mandi houses & marketplace, farmers are not able to sell their crops at a good rate. They are forced to seek middleman and neighbourhood merchants in this situation.
Farmers are forced to sell their crops at a lesser price since these middlemen don't offer a fair price for them.
Lack of Storage facilities
In the absence of a market place, the local traders dominate the market and the exploitation of farmers takes place. Middlemen also creates a problem for farmers but also for consumers because ultimately each segment has to pay a higher price. The situation of poor farmers is even worse now. It is also seen that they are forced to sell their crops at whatever price is
which is being offered to them. These are the agricultural issues which farmers are facing.
Therefore it's extremely difficult for our farmers to produce good crops. Government also plays a major role in providing proper facilities that they deserve.
Challenges in agriculture solutions to agricultural problems
India is an Agro-based country, this also contributes to around 18 percent of the country's GDP and provides employment for around 50 percent of the population.
Challenges in agriculture
Some of the major challenges that farmers are facing today are as follows:-
Landholdings issues : Considering India , it has a very less average farm size with roughly around 85 % of farms being less than 2 hectares in size, which can be difficult for farmers to get profits.
Water scarcity: India has a high population of more than 125 crs and a large agricultural sector, which puts a strain on water resources, making it difficult for farmers to irrigate their crops.
Degradation Of Soil: Unsustainable farming practices, such as overuse of pesticides and fertilizers, have led to soil degradation and reduced crop yields in many parts of India.
Poor sales & lack of access to market: Small farmers in India often have difficulty accessing markets to sell their products, which can limit their income and economic growth.
Food security: India has a high level of food insecurity, which requires increasing food production and ensuring that food is accessible and affordable for all.
Rapidly Changing Climate: India is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, such as changing weather patterns and increased frequency of extreme weather events, which can reduce crop yields and make farming more difficult.
Pest and crop diseases: Pests have a significant impact on crop yields in India, and they are difficult to control due to the lack of effective pest management systems in place.
Labour shortage: A large number of farmers in India are facing a shortage of manpower due to immigration policies and a lack of interest of the young generation in farming as a career.
High-cost of production: The cost of production is increasing day by day, because of the increase in the cost of inputs such as seeds, fertilizer, and fuel, which can make it difficult for farmers to be profitable.
Tech gap: All farmers in India do not have access to advanced technologies, Most of them still don’t have the proper internet connection. It can decrease and limit their ability to increase productivity and efficiency.
Agriculture is generally characterised into:
1. Having an understanding of the type and strength of their farmland soil.
2. Having the good quality seeds
3. Harvesting at in right time
4. Advertising for good prize
5. Sowing at the right time
6. Water supply/monsoon
Any defect that occurs in any of the above steps will manipulate the profit or crop yield. Production by the farm poses many challenges for farmers around the world.
To meet the needs of a growing world population, increasing farm production is necessary to fulfil the demands. This is done sustainably and qualitatively to respond to food safety and environmental requirements.
Agriculture input marketing
Agriculture input marketing refers to the process of promoting and selling various inputs that are essential for agricultural production.
These input products include a vast variety of seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, machinery, irrigation systems, and animal feed as well.
Agriculture input marketing plays a significant role in supporting farmers by providing them with the necessary resources and tools to maximise crop yields, improve soil health, and ensure efficient farm management. Agriculture input marketing takes a lot of effort and less investment as compared to the other sectors. By giving access to quality inputs and offering appropriate guidance, agriculture input marketing contributes to the overall growth and success of the agricultural sector.
Agricultural issues and How Unnati is Solving the Major problems?
After seeing many agricultural issues in India, also globally. We need to find solutions to agricultural problems for all the farmers which they face immensely. Agriculture is considered one of the oldest professions in our country. Also, it is becoming increasingly difficult to feed a growing population. There are vast problems of agriculture in India where a lot of farmers suffer.
Considering agriculture and farming growth it’s the most talked about issue for the people. Also, Government, NGOs, companies, and Agritech startups are also involved in it. Unnati is also one of the prominent players which helps in agriculture input marketing.
It's also seen that many Indian farmers are also not aware of the government schemes and the Yojanas as well. Many Agritech startups are also working in various agricultural domains to solve other problems.
The covid pandemic which is now endemic accelerated the use of technology in agriculture, which led to an unheard-of growth in the Indian agri-tech industry in 2020–21, 2021-22.
Top Agri tech company In India
India contributes a lot in the agricultural industry and holds a good position in global agriculture despite having faced so many challenges. There are many top agritech companies in India which have been established in India to improve the situation of Indian Farmers , agriculture and other related industries. These top agritech companies in India also provide solutions for farmers problems & Unnati is also among them. Unnati is also among top 10 Agri Fintech Startups in India in 2023.
Unnati is also working in the agriculture domain to provide solutions which are as follows:-
1.Unnati brings Agricultural input providers.
2. Bringing togetherness between farmers and agricultural retailers.
3. Building AI tech platform for Farmers and B2B agricultural retailers.
4. A common platform that improves productivity and efficiency reduces the gap between retailers and farmers.
5. Unnati also provides sustainable ecosystems for both farmers and retailers.
Hence in this way Unnati provides solutions for farmers' problems.
How Unnati works for agri retailers?
Unnati works with many leading brands of crop nutrients, agriculture tools, crops, crop protection & seeds, etc. These products are also available on the ustore app which is being sold by Unnati and marketed by Akshamala solution Pvt Ltd. Additionally these products are sold to our b2b retailers. Unnati also helps in executing campaigns for farmers and retailers. Unnati have also partnered with various food processor companies and other large traders enabling
them to source products directly from the farmers.
This ensures traceability and adherence to quality specifications for the buyer. Farm entrepreneurs gain through sustainable business relationships.
Unnati worked with many foundations like various FPOS, & Retail companies which enabled them to expand their business by integrating all the value chain activities which are on the tech platform.
Agri-retailers have been powered with a customised ustore app that enables them to improve their business efficiencies and cater to the farmers more effectively. At the end Unnati is present in every aspect of agriculture like in providing agronomy consulting services, agriculture input marketing etc.
What are the problems with agriculture in India?
Some problems with agriculture in India include water scarcity, inadequate irrigation facilities, soil degradation, reliance on monsoon rains, low productivity, farmer distress, and lack of modern farming techniques and technologies.
What is the main cause of farmer distress in India?
The main causes of farmer distress in India include factors such as mounting debt, crop failure due to natural disasters or pests, low farm incomes, lack of access to credit and insurance, and inadequate government support.
How can farmers improve efficiency?
Farmers can improve efficiency by adopting modern agricultural practices and technologies, such as precision farming, drip irrigation, crop rotation, use of high-yield seeds, mechanization, proper soil management, and access to timely market information and financial services.